Difference between revisions of "Belgian patent classifications"

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[[Category: Belgium]]
 
[[Category: Belgium]]

Latest revision as of 17:42, March 25, 2020

The source for most of this information is the serial Recueil (Spécial) Des Brevets d’Invention (RdBdI).

Belgian patent classifications in 1891 RdBdI

From RdBdI of 1891:

Main category Subcategories In English
Première Catégorie A. Agriculture
B. Aliments et Boissons, préparations et procédés y relatifs
C. Hygiène
A. Agriculture
B. Food and Beverages, preparations and processes relating thereto
C. Hygiene
Deuxième Catégorie A. Génie civil
B. Charpenterie
C. Transport (Par terre, par voie ordinaire, par chemins de fer, aérostats, locomotives à vapeur et autres pour chemins de fer, voitures, chariots et autres véhicules pour routes ordinaire, carrosserie, boîtes à roues, harnais, etc.)
D. Navigation et marine
* (Comprenant toute espèce de bâtiments et de transports par eau, appareils à plonger et de sauvetage, machines à draguer, etc.)
* (Note in the above the inclusion of aero material with transport, and not with navigation and so forth.)
A. Civil Engineering
B. Carpentry
C. Transport (By land, by ordinary means, by railways, aerostats, steam locomotives and others for railways, cars, trolleys and other vehicles for ordinary roads, coachwork, wheeled boxes, harnesses, etc.) > D. Navigation and marine
* (Including all types of buildings and water transport, diving and rescue equipment, dredging machines, etc.)
* (Note in the above transport, and not with navigation and so forth.)
Troisième Catégorie A. Machines et mécanique
B. Machines d’épuisement ou d’extraction des mines
A. Machinery and mechanics
B. Mine depletion or extraction machines
Quatrième Catégorie A. Armes à feu A. Firearms
Cinquième Catégorie A. Chauffage
B. Éclairage
C. Métallurgie
D. Produits chimiques
A. Heating
B.
lighting C.
Metallurgy D. Chemical products
Sixième Catégorie A. Substances filamenteuses et textiles
B. Papier
A. Filamentary substances and textiles B. Paper
Septième Catégorie A. Arts industriels
B. Céramique
C. Économie domestique
D. Objets divers
A. Industrial Arts
B. Ceramic
C. Home Economics
D. Various objects

Classifications as of 1898-1912 at least

Belgian patent classifications from the Rdbdi 1912, page 2919-2920, transcribed on Aug 27 2019: There are classifications A-S at this time. Our 1898 records indicate the classification was the same, perhaps explained slightly differently.

The page is titled Nomenclature des categories

"Observation: Les inventions sont classées dans les categories indiquées ci-dessus d'après le but qu'elles doivent réaliser. Par exemple:

  • Une machine centrifuge, destinée a écrémer le lait, sera classe dans la cat. A. (agriculture), a turbine le sucre, dans la cat. B, a récupérer la benzine, dans la cat. E, a seeker le linge, dans la cat. P. Enfin si l'invention porte sur une ou plusieurs parties communes a toute machine centrifuge abstraction faite de celles qui marquent une destination particulière, elle sera classée dans la cat. L (machines)" (end of quoted section)

That last bit, auto-translated to English, says PURPOSE is important in classification: Observation: Inventions are classified in the categories indicated above according to the purpose they must achieve. For example: A centrifugal machine, intended to skim milk, will be classified in cat. A. (agriculture), sugar turbine, in cat. B, to recover the benzine, in cat. To see the linen in cat. P. If the invention relates to one or more common parts of any centrifugal machine apart from those marking a particular destination, it will be classified in cat. L (machines).

The same text is in the 1911 volume 2787-88 and I used that for some places where the print was faint in the 1912 edition. I left out of the "observation" section the names of the categories exactly. I (Peter) can get rough numbers of patents in these categories these years, or at least their relative magnitude, from the 1912 volume(s).

Main category Description In English
A. Agriculture machines et procedes agricoles, laiterie, engrais naturels et artificiels, etc. machinery and agricultural processes, dairy, natural and artificial fertilizers, etc.
B. Industries Agricoles et Alimentaires meunerie, boulangerie, distillerie, barsserie, sucrerie, tabac, beurre artificiel, etc milling, bakery, distillery, bars, sugar, tobacco, artificial butter, etc.
C. Mines et Métallurgie industries extractives, materiel des travaux souterrains, explosifs, combustibles, traitement des minerais, électro-métallurgie, sidérurgie, etc. Mining and metallurgy: extractive industries, underground works, explosives, fuels, mineral processing, electro-metallurgy, iron and steel, etc.
D. Céramique verrerie, faïencerie, matériaux de construction, etc. Ceramics: glassware, earthenware, building materials, etc.
E. Industries Chimiques produits chimiques, huiles, graisses, peaux, savons, caoutchouc, fabrication du gaz, etc. Chemical Industry: chemicals, oils, fats, skins, soaps, rubber, gas manufacturing, etc.
F. Éclairage et Chauffage éclairage électrique et aux hydrocarbures, chauffage électrique, au charbon, aux hydrocarbures, a vapeur, etc.; bougies, allumettes, etc. Lighting and heating: electric and hydrocarbon lighting, electric heating, coal, hydrocarbon, steam, etc .; candles, matches, etc.
G. Arts Textiles preparation des textiles, filature, tissage, corderie, teinturerie, dentelleriez, etc. Textile arts: textile preparation, spinning, weaving, cordage, dyeing, lace making, etc.
H. Papier pates et machines a papier, imprimerie, reliure, cartonnages, papiers peints, etc. Paper: pulp and paper machines, printing, binding, cardboard, wallpapers
I. Transport sur rails materiel fixe et roulant pour chemins de fer et tramways a traction mécanique, électrique et animale; postes. fixed and rolling equipment for railways and mechanical, electric and animal traction tramways; positions
J. Transport sur route velocipedes et automobiles; carrosserie, charronnage, sellerie, maréchalerie, etc. Road transport: velocipedes and automobiles; bodywork, carting, saddlery, farriery, etc.
K. Navigation, pêche, aérostation Navigation, pêche, aérostation: navigation maritime et fluviale, signaux, sauvetage, pêche et pisciculture; aérostation Navigation, fishing, aerostation: maritime and fluvial navigation, signals, rescue, fishing and fish farming; ballooning
L. Machines et mécaniques générateurs et moteurs a vapeur, moteurs a explosions, compresseurs et moteurs a air et a eau, machines-utiles, transmissions de movement, pompes et robinetterie, etc. generators and steam engines, explosion engines, compressors and air and water engines, machine-tools, motion transmissions, pumps and valves, etc.
M. Electricité machines, piles, distribution, télégraphie, téléphonie et applications diverses excepte a la métallurgie, a l'éclairage, au chauffage et a la traction machinery, batteries, distribution, telegraphy, telephony and miscellaneous applications except metallurgy, lighting, heating and traction
N. Matériel de guerre et de chasse engines de guerre, armes munitions, etc. War and hunting equipment: war engines, ammunition weapons, etc.
O. Génie civil bâtiment, routes, canaux, ports, tunnels, materiel des travaux publics, canalisation de l'eau et du gaz, salubrité publique, secours contre l'indécie, etc. Civil engineering: building, roads, canals, ports, tunnels, public works equipment, pipelines for water and gas, public sanitation, relief against indecia, etc.
P. Habitation (et Économie Domestique) ameublement, hygiene privée, menuiserie, serrurerie, articles de menage, etc. Habitation: furnishing, private hygiene, carpentry, locksmith, household articles, etc. "domestic economy" is in the title as of 1898 but gone by 1912)
Q. Habillement confections, bonneterie, chapellerie, chaussures, machines a coudre, etc. Clothing: confections, hosiery, headgear, shoes, sewing machines, etc.
R. Arts industriels instruments de precision et de chirurgie, photographie, gravure, peinture, instruments de musique, bijouterie, etc. Industrial arts: precision and surgical instruments, photography, engraving, painting, musical instruments, jewelry, etc.
S. Objets divers gainerie, articles de papeterie, articles pour fumeurs, articles de toilette, bimbeloterie, divertissements, emballages, réclamés, etc. Miscellaneous objects: casing, stationery, smokers' articles, toiletries, knickknacks, entertainment, packaging, demanded, etc.

Pre-RdBdI archives

The classification systems of antique patents filed in Belgium were as complicated and overlapping as were the formative evolutions of the nation itself. We infer these designations from the various catalogues on hand.

Regarding the late 19th and early 20th Centuries the RdBdI are most fruitful, though they have not been digitized. It is from these volumes that we found the solid designation "K", that is "Navigation, Pêche, Aérostation" which, at least in the early 1900s, seems to be roughly 50% aeronautical. This system evolved apparently from about 1860 and became most perfect in the early 20th Century. (Despite the specificity of the term "aérostation", this category as absolutely inclusive of the heavier-than-air, indeed, of airplanes.)

For earlier material, the Archives numérisées of Accès aux brevets belge - Toegangen op de Belgische brevetten is of extraordinary note, though this requires more sifting through very basic data, on very general, and variably formatted, patent lists. The process also requires registration within the website of the State Archives of Belgium.

At present, an evolving breakdown of the archived data itself will necessarily serve as a prelude to the explication of the overlapping and highly variable systems of classification.

This source covers the data up to 1860. These handwritten catalogue charts are exquisite. That is, many of them are, with format changes largely coinciding with stages in the formation of the Belgian nation state. They refer to originals which are largely not yet digitized. Aero material may be only modest, but we are systematizing and explicating the search process. Categorization is at times numerical, rather than alphabetical. In some sections a descriptive phrase, itself, with no further designation, is the classification. Within a few catalogue blocks, patents of such a "category" are listed, with no individual patent title at all. So a patent may or may not be pertinent.

The patent category "16" (to us BE 16) has come up within this data, that is within the "AC 5869 - AC 8013, 2 september 1851 - 22 mei 1855" section of the Archives numérisées. Other numbers are coming up, and we are investigating the evolution of this numerical system, or these numerical systems, relative to the alphabetical system which becomes extremely pertinent and handy later. BE 11 is more pertinent, at least relatively. It is at least inclusive of motors, and of some solid aero, such as Patent BE-1831-5607. There are archival groups using phrases as classifications, and groups using more obscure abbreviations. There are catalogue pages well-formatted for the inclusion of categories, or classifications, but with the field left blank.

The systems of classification were evolving, and we are finding the data. This requires some "mining", of quite antique handwriting. There is material pertinent to are interests, and material along closely related technical lines. We must begin with an outlined approach, with blocks of scanned data naturally reflecting the progressions of the Belgian nation state as such.

The breakdown of the archival groups is explicated below.

Patent register for the Dutch period, 1815-1830 or 1822-1846

Register gehouden voor de inschrijving van brevetten die ingediend werden in de Hollandse periode
aka Register kept for the registration of patents that were submitted in the Dutch period

These pages begin in a bilingual manner, with Dutch-language material on each left page being properly duplicated on the corresponding right. The span of years 1815-1830 has specifically to do with Napoleon's fall, and the re-settling of European territory, that is, before the establishment of the Kingdom of Belgium in 1830(1831) with its present borders. The grouping of material from 1822-1846 into this block is another matter. It might be in Dutch records too, though NL is said to have had no patent office.)

AC 502 - AC 2643, 29 november 1830 - 31 december 1843

It is in this data category, that immediately above, that we found Patent BE-1831-1533, purely aero, and classified as BE 11, and this "11" seems to be prominent. It is absolutely inclusive of non-aero material, pumps, etc.

Like others of these archival blocks, this catalogue is divided into columns, named from left to right, No. d’ordre, No. de l'indicateur (that is patent number), Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Domicile (Commune), Domicile (Province), Date du brevet, Durée du brevet, Nature (du brevet), Nature (de son objet), Objet du brevet (that is, the patent’s title), followed by Montant des droits, Sommes payées, Observations. The “Nature du brevet” is its role as an invention, importation, or perfectionnement. The “Nature de son objet” is its classification. In this catalogue we are often presented here with both a word or phrase and with a number. These are to be noted distinctly, case by case, for any given number will not always equate with the same word or phrase, from patent to patent.

"BE 19" seems fairly consistently to be "armes", but we are doing more quick viewing for per aero. “BE 6” seems fairly consistently to mean “Machines à vapeur” steam propulsion, and with the word "gaz", in this context, but we are prioritizing per se aero. "BE 10" has to do with motors, though the phrase “Machines à vapeur”. There is a "BE 10 of this variety, “pour une nouvelle machine à vapeur à rotation”, Patent BE-1834-1339, which we will possibly keep, along with Patent BE-1836-2182. (BE 10 is also inclusive of automobile, incidentally.) BE 9 seems to be inclusive of and maybe prominently "Chemins de fer", including the teasingly titled “pour une machine à locomotion dit : chemin volant”, Patent BE-1836-2193.

BE 6 goes beyond steam propulsion and into other aspects of propulsion, such as the “machine rotative métallique destiné à remplacer les machines à Vapeur” found in Patent BE-1836-2171. Still we are mainly dealing here with propulsion pertinent to marine.

Both BE 4 "gaz", here, and BE 9 “appareil et mécanisme” begin to show promising titles on digital page 19 of this section.

AC 2644 - AC 5868, 1 januari 1844 - 26 augustus 1851

This section begins with the title page “Liste des brevets accordés, à partir du 1er janvier”, and a relatively tidy catalogue, in terms of penmanship and general condition. Columns are labelled, from left to right, Numéro d’Ordre, Numéro de l’indicateur (Patent #), Noms & Prénoms des brevetés (Inventor name), Commune, Province, Date du Brevet, Durée du Brevet, Nature du Brevet (that is designation as "importation", "perfectionnement", or "invention"), Catégorie du Brevet (numeric), Montrant des Droits (seemingly a legal designation, such as "634,92"), Sommes payées, objet du Brevet (Patent title, to us), and Preuve de la mise en œuvre… An illustrative and conceivably pertinent example is Patent BE-1844-2651, “pour des perfectionnements à un appareil d’extraction de gaz, déja breveté en sa faveur le 19 mai 1843”, BE 9. We are ordering this scanned-analogue search process.

AC 5869 - AC 8013, 2 september 1851 - 22 mei 1855

This block follows, at least from the beginning, a format of columns labelled, from left to right, as such : Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Commune, Province, Date du brevet, Nature du brevet, Durée du brevet, Catégorie du brevet, Montant des droits, Sommes Payées, Objet du brevet.

The categories are numerical, 11, 2, 12, 13, 16, etc. (This is hopefully and likely the BE 11 we have elsewhere.) BE 9 comes up within this group, in association with steam propulsion. See Patent BE-1851-5895.

Nrs. 1-3795, 14 juni 1854 - 31 december 1856

This catalogue is extraordinarily well-formatted, in terms of its printed template and in terms of the handwriting found in its entries. As with other catalogues, it goes in columns from left to right, in this with Numéro d’ordre, through Numéro de l’indicateur, Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Commune, Province, Date du dépot, Date de l’arrêté ministériel, Nature du brevet, Durée du brevet, Catégorie du brevet, Observations, and lastly Objet(title) du brevet.

This block does often have the "category" field filled in. Page one begins with a numerical system, then has some blanks. Page two commences with a system based on abbreviations, "H", "A.F.", "A.J", "P.C.", "S.F.", "M", and so forth. This is all neatly handwritten, though quite antique. Patent BE-1854-34 deals with projectiles, and has BE AF.

Nrs. 3744-6878, 1857-1858

This catalogue is extraordinarily well-formatted, in terms of its printed template and in terms of the handwriting found in its entries. As with other catalogues, it goes in columns from left to right, in this with Numéro d’ordre, through Numéro de l’indicateur, Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Commune, Province, Date du dépot, Date de l’arrêté ministériel, Nature du brevet, Durée du brevet, Catégorie du brevet, Observations, and lastly Objet(title) du brevet. “Catégorie” is unfortunately left blank.

Nrs. 6879, 8444, 1859

This catalogue is extraordinarily well-formatted, in terms of its printed template and in terms of the handwriting found in its entries. As with other catalogues, it goes in columns from left to right, in this with Numéro d’ordre, through Numéro de l’indicateur, Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Commune, Province, Date du dépot, Date de l’arrêté ministériel, Nature du brevet, Durée du brevet, Catégorie du brevet, Observations, and lastly Objet(title) du brevet. “Catégorie” is unfortunately left blank.

Nrs. 8437-10167, 1860

"Category", within at least much of this catalogue block, and maybe all of it, seems to be purely descriptive, with words, such as "transport.", "trans.", and "navigation", for instance, being listed as "catégorie", with no further numerical or alphabetical designation. Though registration within this site is required, scrolling, with differently zoomed catalogue images, of high resolution, becomes "intuitive". "Armes à feu" and "Métallurgie" may be of some note, but we are doing a quick scan for aero. Material within this block, becomes increasingly tidy, but still presents some challenges. We are looking into it. Early aeronautic data, analogous to the earliest French, is likely sometimes classified simply as "mach. et méch." Some of this catalogue material lacks titles, though it includes categorization such as these. We are honing in therefore, on aero.

On a bright note, due to scale, and to limitations on included data, these pages are easy to peruse, relative to the peculiarities of the way one zooms and scrolls within these archives. On may scroll up or down an entire page, quickly, legibly and simultaneously seeing the patents' dates, inventors, numbers, and categories, but no more. Categories being those such as listed above, with only and unknown fraction being tangent to out interests, this particular block may be of interest were we to need it as a follow-up to some lead found elsewhere.

A further convenience is that the degree of zoom, and any positioning within a scanned image, that is two pages, will be carried over, when one clicks to the following, or the preceding.

Within this block, the format eventually changes, to a point at which "categories" are lacking, but in which titles are at least included. The format, by column from left to right, is No. d’ordre, No. de l’indicateur, Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Domicile, Province, Date (du dépot, et de l’arrêté délivrant le brevet), Nature du brevet (that is status as importation, invention, perfectionnement), Annuités payées, Objet du brevet (that is the title). These images are paired pages, with "Objets" (titles), dominated the right page of each pair, allowing for rapid perusal of pages. (Patent BE-1860-10122 is found within the latter sections of this block.)

Register of patents 1848-1855

Proper title: Register gehouden voor de inschrijving van de Belgische brevetten ingediend voor het in werking treden van de wet van 24 maart 1854, maar vallend onder de reglementering van deze wet. [1848-1855]

That is: "Register kept for the registration of the Belgian patents (licenses) submitted before the law of March 24, 1854, but falling under the regulation of this law. [1848-1855]"

This catalogue is extraordinarily well-formatted, in terms of its printed template and in terms of the handwriting found in its entries. As with other catalogues, it goes in columns from left to right, in this with Numéro d’ordre, through Numéro de l’indicateur, Noms et prénoms des brevetés, Commune, Province, Date du brevet primitif, Date de la déclaration ministérielle, Nature du brevet, Durée du brevet, Catégorie du brevet, Observations, and lastly Objet du brevet. “Catégorie” is unfortunately often left blank.

Patent BE-1854-2731, a “Machine à vapeur à rotation”, was filed 16 January 1854, by B.A. Brooman, of Brussels, Brabant, Belgium. It may be tangent to our interests in steam and steam propulsion. Its nature is that of an “importation”.

There are many other here pertinent to steam, though we know they are often radiators.

Patent BE-1857- 841, “Moteur”, was filed 11 Xbre1857, by J.G. Pass of Liège. Handwriting and certain other conventions are antique, though extraordinarily tidy. We have to bear with this in the interests of obtaining data which has not been “modernized” by others. This is an “Invention” per se, of ten years. It is pertinent to motors.

Patent BE-1851-905, “Appareil de sûrete pour les fusils”, was filed 4 Xbre 1851, by _ Ista, of Brussels, Brabant, Belgium. It is pertinent of projectiles, and safety. It's an “Invention” per se, of ten years.

References


Enclosing categories Patent category systems
Subcategories BE K, BE J, BE L, BE 11, BE 9, BE 2me-C
Keywords
Start year
End year