Graffigny, 1909, Les Aéroplans
- Henry de Graffigny. Les Aéroplans: historique, calcul et construction. Bibliothèque des actualités industrielles, no. 133. Paris: Librairie Bernard Tignol. Publications de la Librairie de l'École Centrale des Arts et Manufactures. 53 bis, quai des grands-augustins. 1909.
Scan at BnF/Gallica.
Introduction: after achieving sustention in the air, the other half of useful flight is navigation, or maintenance of a chosen direction. Balloon voyages often take weird courses, sometimes almost completely doubling back on themselves, as in the case of Gaston Tissandier flying in the Neptune over the English Channel in 1868. Graffigny credits Charles Renard for developing dirigibility and quotes at length his vision of an aerial fleet, getting into depth on the possibilities for range of movement relative to wind. He discusses different types of aircraft and quotes a proof from Camille Flammarion that man cannot fly on his own muscular power. (Which proof deals only with the capability to independently produce enough upward force to counteract gravity; vol ramé in birds as contrasted with vol à voile, sailing flight, and vol plané, gliding.)
Ch. 2: Gives history of aviation and a rundown of current models.
Ch. 3: Gives some mathematical laws for aviation. Followed by a long list of statements by prominent people such as Marey, Tatin, and Armengaud jeune, asserting the limitations of using mathematical formulae to construct aircraft (p. 35)
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